Numbered Sources for Scotland the Brief

This page contains the numbered sources for the full non-abridged version of the book Scotland the Brief.

Content from the book that is directly replicated on businessforScotland.com will also match the numbered sources here.

  1. Progress Scotland (2019), ‘63% majority believe Scotland will become independent ’ www. progressscotland.org/research/63-majority-believe- scotland-will-become-independent
  2. BBC (2013), ‘Scottish Independence: What Have the Polls Been Saying?: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-scotland-politics-24124631
  3. The Scottish Government, ‘Scottish Natural Capital: Ecosystem Service Accounts 2019’, p. 2: www.gov.scot/ binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/ statistics/2019/03/scottish-natural-capital- ecosystem-service-accounts-2019/documents/ scottish-natural-capital-ecosystem-service- accounts-2019/scottish-natural-capital-ecosystem- service-accounts-2019/govscot%3Adocument/scottish-natural-capital-ecosystem-service- accounts-2019.pdf
  4. The Scottish Government, ‘Scottish Natural Capital: Ecosystem Service Accounts 2019’, p. 2
  5. The Scottish Government, ‘Scottish Natural Capital: Ecosystem Service Accounts 2019’, p. 28
  6. The figure is based on the author’s calculations following correspondence with the Food & Drink Federation: www.fdf.org.uk/statsataglance.aspx
  7. The figure for Scotland’s % of UK cattle was obtained by using the figures provided by the Scottish Government as well as the UK Government statistics in order to calculate the proportion in Scotland: www. gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/structure- of-the-livestock-industry-in-england-at-december– www.gov.scot/publications/results-june-2018-scottish-agricultural-census/pages/7/
  8. The percentages are based on the Business for Scotland’s research and calculations: www. businessforscotland.com/scotland-is-one-of-the- worlds-most-naturally-wealthy-nations/
  9. The figure for Norway was obtained by taking the sum of the already-CPI adjusted net state revenue from
    oil and gas in Norway 1975-2018. The figure for the UK was obtained by taking the sum of the inflation adjusted net state revenue for the same time period, figures included in Oil and Gas authority states with 2017/18 as a baseline: www.norskpetroleum.no/en/ economy/governments-revenues/; www.ogauthority. co.uk/media/5389/tax_table_mar_2019.pdf
  10. BBC, ‘UK Oil and Gas Production Forecast Raised’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland- business-47516655
  11. The percentages are based on the Business
    for Scotland’s research and calculations: www. businessforscotland.com/scotland-is-one-of-the- worlds-most-naturally-wealthy-nations/
  12. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Scotch Whisky Exports Analysis 2017’: www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/ newsroom/scotch-whisky-exports-analysis-2017/
  13. Scotch Whisky Association, ‘International trade’: www. scotch-whisky.org.uk/insights/international-trade/ Export Statistics Scotland (2019), ‘Export
  14. Statistics Scotland 2017’, p.7: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0054/00545619.pdf; SPICe (2016), ‘Export Statistics Scotland 2014’, p.4: www.parliament. scot/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S4/SB_16- 16_Export_Statistics_Scotland_2014.pdf
  15. Scottish Enterprise. (2019) ‘Survey of International Activity in the Oil and Gas Sector 2016/17’, p.9: www. scottish-enterprise-mediacentre.com/resources/ zt2wx-brssp-o332a-t1div-uc6jw
  16. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Development of Supply & Use Satellite Accounts for Extra- Regio Economic Activities’, p.1: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0053/00534208.pdf
  17. Scotland’s exports including oil and gas from: The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Development of Supply & Use Satellite Accounts for Extra-Regio Economic Activities.’; Export Statistics Scotland (2019), ‘Export Statistics Scotland 2017’, p.7; SPICe (2016) ‘Export Statistics Scotland 2014’; Population data from: ONS (2018), ‘Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2017’ www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/ populationandmigration/populationestimates/ bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/ mid2017
  18. UK (excluding Scotland) exports from: Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Balance of Payments: Exports: Total Trade in Goods & Services: CP NSA £m Time Series’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/ nationalaccounts/balanceofpayments/timeseries/ ktmw/bb
  19. Fraser of Allander Institute (2017), ‘Employment Supported by Scottish Export Demand’, p.1: www.sbs. strath.ac.uk/economics/fraser/20170420/Exports- and-Employment-Scotland.pdf
  20. Fraser of Allander Institute (2018), ‘Scotland in 2050: Realising our Global Potential’, p.2: www.sbs.strath.ac.uk/economics/fraser/20180919/Scotland_ in_2050_Realising_our_global_potential.pdf
  21. The Scottish Government (2019). ‘A Trading Nation – a plan for growing Scotland’s exports’, p.13: www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/ govscot/publications/strategy-plan/2019/05/ scotland-a-trading-nation/documents/scotland- a-trading-nation/scotland-a-trading-nation/ govscot%3Adocument/326205_SCT0319861220- 001_%252BWR.pdf
  22. The Scottish Government (2019). ‘A Trading Nation – a plan for growing Scotland’s exports’, p.13
  23. The Scottish Government (2019) ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts, Scotland 2018’, p.10: www2.gov. scot/Resource/0054/00546840.pdf
  24. The Scottish Government (2019). ‘A Trading Nation – a plan for growing Scotland’s exports’, p.13
  1. The Electoral Commission, ‘EU referendum results’: www.electoralcommission.org.uk/find- information-by-subject/elections-and-referendums/ past-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/ electorate-and-count-information
  2. The Electoral Commission, ‘EU referendum results’
  3. Fraser of Allander (2018), ‘Long-term Economic Implications of Brexit’, p.17: www.parliament.scot/ General %20Documents/Fraser_of_Allander_-_ Brexit.pdf
  4. Life Sciences Scotland (2017), ‘An Updated Strategy for a Fast Growing Sector’: www.lifesciencesscotland. com/about-life-sciences-scotland/strategy
  5. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth Sector Statistics Database – Table 2.1 & 2.2’: www2.gov.scot/ Topics/Statistics/Browse/Business/Publications/ GrowthSectors/Database
  6. Skills Development Scotland (2017), ‘Scotland’s Digital Technologies: Summary Report’, p.14: www. skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/43306/ scotlands-digital-technologies-summary-report.pdf
  7. The Scottish Government (2018) ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.2
  8. BBC (2018), ‘Plans for First Rocket Launch Dedicated to Scottish Satelite’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-glasgow-west-44194126
  9. European Commission (2017), ‘Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2017’, p.32: publications.europa.eu/en/ publication-detail/-/publication/ce38bc9d-5562-11e7- a5ca-01aa75ed71a1
  10. Nesta (2019), ‘European Digital Social Innovation Index’: www.nesta.org.uk/data-visualisation-and- interactive/european-digital-social-innovation-index/
  11. Scottish Parliament Information Centre (2018), ‘European Union Funding In Scotland’: sp-bpr-en- prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/2018/9/28/ European-Union-funding-in-Scotland/SB%2018-61. pdf – Business for Scotland Calculations.
  12. Scotland Development International (2018), ‘Aerospace and Space’: www.sdi.co.uk/business-in- scotland/key-sectors/aerospace-and-space
  13. Times Higher Education (2019), ‘World University Rankings 2019’: www.timeshighereducation.com/ world-university-rankings/2019/world-ranking#!/ page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank/sort_order/asc/ cols/stats
  14. The National (2018), ‘£5m Funding Will Match
    Firm with Experts’: www.thenational.scot/ news/17203178.5m-funding-will-match-firms-with- experts/
  15. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Innovation and Entrepreneurship’: www.gov.scot/policies/supporting- business/innovation-and-entrepreneurship/
  16. Eurostat (2018), ‘Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, 2006 and 2016’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics- explained/index.php?title=File:Gross_domestic_ expenditure_on_R_%26_D,_2006_and_2016_(%25,_ relative_to_GDP)_FP18.png
  17. Nesta (2017), ‘The New UK R&D Target: Why It’s Now Time To Move The Measurement Goalposts’: www. nesta.org.uk/blog/the-new-uk-rd-target-why-its-now- time-to-move-the-measurement-goalposts/
  18. Nesta (2014), ‘When Small is Beautiful: Lessons from Highly Innovative Smaller Nations’, p.4: media.nesta.org.uk/documents/ when20small20is20beautiful20final.pdf
  19. Office of Rail and Road, ‘Estimates of station usage’: orr.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/39960/ estimates-of-station-usage-2017-18-key-facts.pdf
  20. Scottish Development International, ‘Why Choose Scotland’: www.sdi.co.uk/why-choose-scotland/ infrastructure-and-connectivity
  21. Scottish Development International, ‘Why Choose Scotland’
  22. The Scottish Parliament, ‘SPICe Briefing: Transport in Scotland’, p.16: www.parliament.scot/ ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S5/SB_16-55_ Transport_in_Scotland.pdf
  23. Scottish Development International, ‘Why Choose Scotland’
  24. Juniper Research (2017), ‘Top 10 UK Smart Cities in 2017’: www.juniperresearch.com/resources/ infographics/top-10-uk-smart-cities-in-2017- infographic
  25. Scotland’s Environment, ‘Rivers and Lochs’: www. environment.gov.scot/media/1180/water-rivers-and- lochs.pdf
  26. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Annual Compendium of Scottish Energy Statistics: May 2019 Update’, p.13: www.gov.scot/binaries/ content/documents/govscot/publications/ publication/2019/05/energy-consumer- action-plan-putting-consumers-heart- scotlands-energy-transition/documents/ annual-compendium-scottish-energy-statistics/ annual-compendium-scottish-energy-statistics/ govscot%3Adocument/annual-compendium- scottish-energy-statistics.pdf
  27. The Scottish Government (2019), Annual Compendium of Scottish Energy Statistics, p.85
  28. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Climate Change Plan: Monitoring Report October 2018’, p.7: www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/progress-report/2018/10/ climate-change-plan-monitoring-report-2018/ documents/00542587-pdf/00542587-pdf/ govscot%3Adocument/00542587.pdf
  29. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Climate Change Plan: Monitoring Report October 2018’, p.11
  1. The Scottish Government, ‘National Public Bodies Directory’: www.sdi.co.uk/about-sdi/global-offices
  2. The Scottish Parliament, ‘Devolved and Reserved Matters’: www.parliament.scot/visitandlearn/ Education/18642.aspx
  3. The Scottish Development International, ‘Global offices’: www.sdi.co.uk/about-sdi/global-offices
  4. The Scottish Government (2018),
    ‘The Sustainable Economic Growth
    Commission’, p.30: static1.squarespace.com/ static/5afc0bbbf79392ced8b73dbf/t/5b0a988c352 f53c0a5132a23/1527421195436/SGC+Full+Report.pdf
  5. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘The Sustainable Economic Growth Commission’, p.38
  6. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘The Sustainable Economic Growth Commission’, p.41
  7. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Scottish National Investment Bank Bill’: www.parliament.scot/S5_Bills/ Scottish%20National%20Investment%20Bank%20 Bill/SPBill43S052019.pdf
  8. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population aged 25-64 by educational attainment level, sex and NUTS 2 regions (%) 2018’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/education-and- training/data/database
  9. World Economic Forum, ‘Human Capital Index’: reports.weforum.org/global-human-capital- report-2017/dataexplorer/?doing_wp_cron=156104 0155.6676580905914306640625; Eurostat (2019), ‘Population aged 25-64 by educational attainment’
  10. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Quarterly Labour Market Briefing – February 2019’, p.6: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0054/00546705.pdf
  11. Scottish Government (2019), ‘New Modern Apprentice Target’, p.7: www.gov.scot/news/ new-modern-apprentice-target/; Skills Development Scotland (2018), ‘Annual Participation Measure for 16-19 Year Olds in Scotland 2018’; www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/ media/44876/2018_annual-participation-measure- report.pdf
  12. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Summary Statistics for Attainment and Initial Leavers Destinations, No. 1: 2019 Edition’, p.2 and 9: www.gov.scot/binaries/ content/documents/govscot/publications/ statistics/2019/02/summary-statistics-attainment- initial-leaver-destinations-1-2019-edition/ documents/summary-statistics-attainment-initial- leaver-destinations-no-1-2019-edition/summary- statistics-attainment-initial-leaver-destinations- no-1-2019-edition/govscot%3Adocument/ summary-statistics-attainment-initial-leaver- destinations-no-1-2019-edition.pdf
  13. UK Government Department of Education (2018), ‘Destinations of Key Stage 4 and Key Stage 5 Students, England, 2016/17’, p.1: assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_ data/file/748199/Destinations_Main_Text_2017.pdf
  14. Scottish Government (2018), ‘Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Annual Population Survey 2018’, p.30: www.gov.scot/binaries/content/ documents/govscot/publications/statistics/2019/05/ regional-employment-patterns-scotland-statistics- annual-population-survey-2018/documents/ regional-employment-patterns-scotland-annual- population-survey-2018/regional-employment- patterns-scotland-annual-population-survey-2018/ govscot%3Adocument/regional-employment- patterns-scotland-annual-population-survey-2018. pdf
  15. UK Government Department for Education (2017), ‘Employer Perspectives Survey 2016’, p.77: assets. publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/622343/ EPS_2016_UK_Report.pdf
  16. UK Government Department of Education (2018) ‘Employer Skills Survey 2017’, p.14: assets.publishing. service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/ uploads/attachment_data/file/746493/ESS_2017_ UK_Report_Controlled_v06.00.pdf
  17. Scottish Government (2019), ‘The Gender Pay Gap: Facts and Figures – 2018’, p.8: sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep. azureedge.net/published/2019/2/4/The-gender-pay- gap—facts-and-figures—2018/SB%2019-08.pdf
  18. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Quarterly Labour Market Briefing – February 2019’, p.2: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0054/00546705.pdf
  19. Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s First Digital Skills Academy Opens its Doors’: news.gov.scot/news/ scotlands-first-digital-skills-academy-opens-its-doors
  20. The Guardian (2019), ‘Could IT Skills Shortage Scupper UK Ambitions for Digital Public Services?’: www.theguardian.com/society/2019/feb/22/it- skills-shortage-scupper-uk-digital-ambitions-public- services
  21. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Supplementary Tables ‘, Table 10: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/ QNAS; UK Government (2018), ‘Nominal and Real Regional Gross Value Added (Balanced) by Industry’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/grossvalueaddedgva/ datasets/nominalandrealregional grossvalueaddedbalancedbyindustry
  22. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Supplementary Tables’, Table 10:
  23. Author’s own calculations: Scottish Government (2019), ‘Quarterly National Accounts, Scotland’; Scottish Government (2019), ‘Whole of Scotland Accounts Project’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Economy/SNAP/satelliteaccounts; OECD (2019), ‘Value Added and its Components by Activity, ISIC Rev 4’: stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SNA_TABLE6A#
  1. Statistics Norway (2019). ‘National Accounts –Final expenditure and gross domestic product, by macroeconomic indicator, contents and year’: www. ssb.no/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/ statistikker/knr
  2. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Supplementary Tables’, Table 10
  3. World Bank (2019), ‘GDP Per Captia (Current US$)’: data.worldbank.org/indicator/ny.gdp.pcap.cd?most_ recent_value_desc=true
  4. Norges Investment Bank (2019), ‘The Fund’: www. nbim.no/
  5. Norsk Petroleum (2019) ‘The Government’s Revenues’: www.norskpetroleum.no/en/economy/ governments-revenues/; UK Oil and Gas Authority (2019), ‘Government Revenues from UK Oil and Gas Production’: www.ogauthority.co.uk/media/5389/ tax_table_mar_2019.pdf
  6. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population Projections’: ec.europa. eu/eurostat/en/web/population-demography- migration-projections/statistics-illustrated
  7. British Petroleum (2018), ‘BP Statistical Review of World Energy’
  8. Author’s own calculations: Scottish Government (2019), ‘Quarterly National Accounts, Scotland’; Scottish Government (2019), ‘Whole of Scotland Accounts Project’; OECD (2019), ‘Value Added and its Components by Activity, ISIC Rev 4’: stats.oecd.org/ Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SNA_TABLE6A#
  9. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy, UK: 2017’: www.ons. gov.uk/economy/environmentalaccounts/bulletins/ finalestimates/2017
  10. Scottish Government (2018), ‘Renewable Energy’: www2.gov.scot/renewableenergy
  11. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Energy Statistics Database’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/ Business/Energy/Database
  12. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Final Estimates’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/environmentalaccounts/ datasets/lowcarbonandrenewableenergy economyfirstestimatesdataset
  13. Export Statistics Scotland (2019),’Export Statistics Scotland 2017’, p. 43
  14. Community Energy Scotland, ‘Projects database’: www.communityenergyscotland.org.uk/projects.asp
  15. The National (2018), ‘Surge in number of community owned renewable energy projects’: www.thenational.scot/news/16412977.surge-in-number-of-community-owned-renewable-energy-projects/
  16. Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, ‘UK Energy Statistics, 2018 & Q4 2018’: assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/791297/Press_Notice_March_2019.pdf

93. Scottish Government, ‘Annual energy statement 2019’: www.gov.scot/publications/annual-energy- statement-2019/pages/3/

94. Scottish Government (2011), ‘Renewable Energy and Power Cables’: www2.gov.scot/ Publications/2011/03/16182005/68

95. UK Government (2019), ‘Energy Trends: UK Renewables, January to March 2019’: www.gov.uk/ government/statistics/energy-trends-section-6- renewables

96. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Final Estimates’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/environmentalaccounts/ datasets/lowcarbonandrenewableenergy economyfirstestimatesdataset

97. BBC (2017), ‘World’s First Floating Wind Farm Starts Generating Electricity’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-41652707

98. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Final Estimates’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/environmentalaccounts/ datasets/lowcarbonandrenewable energyeconomyfirstestimatesdataset

99. Independent (2018), ‘Wind and Solar Power Investment Crashed After Government Cut Funding, Show New Figures’: www.independent.co.uk/news/ uk/politics/wind-power-solar-investment-drop- uk-government-funding-environment-figures- budget-a8162261.html

100. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Final Estimates’

101. The Guardian (2019), ‘Renewable Energy Jobs in
UK Plunge by a Third’: www.theguardian.com/ environment/2019/may/30/renewable-energy-jobs- in-uk-plunge-by-a-third

102. Scottish Government (2018), ‘Oil and Gas Production Statistics 2017-18’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Economy/oilgas1718

103. Macrotrends (2019), ‘Crude Oil Prices: 70 Year Historical Chart’: www.macrotrends.net/1369/crude- oil-price-history-chart

104. Reuters (2018),’Shell poised to dethrone Exxon in oil titans’ cash clash’: uk.reuters.com/article/uk-shell- results/shell-poised-to-dethrone-exxon-in-oil-titans- cash-clash-idUKKBN1FL47G

105. Macrotrends (2019), ‘Crude Oil Prices: 10 Year Daily Chart’: www.macrotrends.net/2516/wti-crude-oil-prices-10-year-daily-chart

  1. Reuters (2018),’Not dead yet: Home of Brent crude gets new lease of life’: www.reuters.com/article/us- northsea-oil-analysis/not-dead-yet-home-of-brent- crude-gets-new-lease-of-life-idUSKBN1K72RN
  2. BBC (2014),’North Sea Oil: Facts and Figures’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland- politics-26326117
  3. The Guardian (2019), ‘Discovery of the Biggest UK
    Gas Field in a Decade Raises Industry Hopes’: www. theguardian.com/business/2019/jan/29/discovery-of- biggest-uk-gas-field-in-a-decade-glengorm-north-sea
  4. Opito (2018), ‘UKCS – Workforce Dynamics: The Skills Landscape 2019-2025’, p.7: downloads.opito. com/downloads/Publications/UKCS-Workforce- Dynamics-The-Skills-Landscape-2019-2025. pdf?mtime=20190501185622
  5. BP (2018), ‘BP Starts-Up Claire Ridge Production’: www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/news-and- insights/press-releases/bp-starts-up-clair-ridge- production.html
  6. Oil and Gas People (2014),’Scottish West Coast Untapped Oil and Gas Reserves Worth Billions’: www. oilandgaspeople.com/news/1039/scottish-west- coast-untapped-oil-and-gas-reserves-worth-billions/
  7. Oil and Gas UK (2017), ‘Two New Reports to Boost Decommissioning Intelligence’: oilandgasuk.co.uk/ two-new-reports-to-boost-decommissioning- intelligence/
  8. Offshore Energy Today(2018). ‘No coherent plan
    for UK oil and gas industry, Unite warns‘; www. offshoreenergytoday.com/no-coherent-plan-for-uk- oil-and-gas-industry-unite-warns/
  9. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Statistics Database’
  10. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Statistics Database’
  11. Oil and Gas UK (2019), ‘Workforce Report 2018’, p.10- 12: oilandgasuk.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ OGUK-Workforce-Report-2018.pdf
  12. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Statistics Database’
  13. Reuters (2019), ‘Shell Sticking With Spending Discipline as 2018 Profits Soar’: uk.reuters.com/ article/us-shell-results/shell-sticking-with-spending- discipline-as-2018-profits-soar-idUKKCN1PP0OR
  14. Financial Times (2019), ‘North Sea Oil’s Revival Still Demands Courage from Investors’: www.ft.com/ content/48d3fe96-ffb9-11e8-ac00-57a2a826423e
  15. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Survey of International Activity in the Oil and Gas Sector 2016/17’, p.9
  16. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Satellite Accounts for Extra-Regio Economic Activities’, p.1
  17. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Whole of Scotland Economic Accounts Project’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/ Statistics/Browse/Economy/SNAP/satelliteaccounts
  18. Scottish Government (2016), ‘Energy in Scotland: Get the Facts’: www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20170104134816/www.gov.scot/Topics/ Business-Industry/Energy/Facts; Eurostat (2019), ‘Population on 1 January by Age, Sex and NUTS 2 Region’
  19. The Guardian (2019), ‘Discovery of the Biggest UK Gas Field in a Decade Raises Industry Hopes’: www.theguardian.com/business/2019/jan/29/discovery-of- biggest-uk-gas-field-in-a-decade-glengorm-north-sea
  20. Scottish Government (2018), ‘Oil and Gas Production Statistics 2017-18’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Economy/oilgas1718
  21. Oil and Gas UK (2017), ‘Brexit and the Oil and Gas Industry’: oilandgasuk.co.uk/brexit-and-the-uk-oil- and-gas-industry/
  22. Oil and Gas UK (2017), ‘Brexit and the Oil and Gas Industry’: oilandgasuk.co.uk/brexit-and-the-uk-oil- and-gas-industry/
  23. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.1 & 2.5
  24. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 2.1
  25. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 5.2
  26. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 2.15
  27. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics 2017’, p.8: www.gov. scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/statistics/2018/09/scottish- sea-fisheries-statistics-2017/documents/ corrected-scottish-sea-fisheries-statistics-2017/ corrected-scottish-sea-fisheries-statistics-2017/ govscot%3Adocument/00542009.pdf
  28. House of Lords Select Committee, ‘Chapter 8: Fisheries and trade’: publications.parliament. uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeucom/78/7811. htm#footnote-078
  29. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘EU funding for Seafood Scotland’: news.gov.scot/news/eu-funding- for-seafood-scotland
  30. Scotland is now, ‘Food and drink’: www.scotland.org/ about-scotland/food-and-drink
  31. NFU Scotland (2018), ‘What We Produce’: www.nfus. org.uk/farming-facts/what-we-produce.aspx
  32. The Scottish Government (2013), ‘Scotland’s future and Scottish fisheries’, p.3: www.gov.scot/binaries/ content/documents/govscot/publications/corporate- report/2014/08/scotlands-future-scottish-fisheries/ documents/00458445-pdf/00458445-pdf/ govscot%3Adocument/00458445.pdf
  33. Author’s personal correspondence with Scotland’s Rural College SRUC Research Team
  34. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Farm workers in Scottish agriculture’, p.19: www.gov. scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/research-and-analysis/2018/03/ farm-workers-scottish-agriculture-case-studies-international-seasonal-migrant-labour/ documents/00533236-pdf/00533236-pdf/ govscot%3Adocument/00533236.pdf
  1. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures’: www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/insights/facts-figures/
  2. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures’
  3. Forbes (2018),’The 4 Companies Behind 3/4 Of All Scotch Whisky Production’: www.forbes.com/sites/ felipeschrieberg/2016/09/28/the-4-companies- behind-34-of-all-scotch-whisky-production/
  4. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures’
  5. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures’
  6. The Scottish Government (2018) ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.2
  7. O’Connor, A (2018) ‘Brewing and distilling in Scotland,’ SPICe briefing, p.4: https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep. azureedge.net/published/2018/10/11/Brewing-and- distilling-in-Scotland—economic-facts-and-figures/ SB%2018-64.pdf
  8. O’Connor, A (2018) ‘Brewing and distilling in Scotland,’ SPICe briefing, p.5
  9. Brewing Industry Leadership Group (2018), ‘Brewing Up A Storm’, p.4: www.foodanddrink.scot/media/1871/ brewing-strategy.pdf
  10. Brewing Industry Leadership Group (2018), ‘Brewing Up A Storm’, p.3
  11. O’Connor, A (2018) ‘Brewing and distilling in Scotland,’ SPICe briefing, p.18
  12. O’Connor, A (2018) ‘Brewing and distilling in Scotland,’ SPICe briefing, p.18
  13. World Whisky Day, ‘Whisky Producing Countries: France’: www.worldwhiskyday.com/whisky-countries- france/
  14. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures.’
  15. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth SectorStatistics’ Database – Table 5.3
  16. Scottish Whisky Association (2017), ‘Value ofScotch Exports Grows in First Half of 2017’: www. scotch-whisky.org.uk/news-publications/news/ value-of-scotch-exports-grows-in-first-half-of-2017/#. W04R5n4o-34
  17. Brewing Industry Leadership Group (2018), ‘Brewing Up A Storm’, p.4
  18. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘International Trade’: www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/insights/facts- figures/
  19. Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board (2017), ’Exploring the Implications of Brexit for Agriculutre and Horticulture in Scotland’, p.22: projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/ Market%20Insight/Horizon_November2017.pdf
  20. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘International Trade’

160. Scotch Whisky Association (2018), ‘Facts and figures’ 161. The City (2019), ‘Enabling growth across the UK 2019’,

p.30: www.thecityuk.com/assets/2019/Report-PDFs/ dfb6be8b79/Enabling-growth-across-the-UK-2019. pdf

162. Skills Development Scotland (2018), ‘Scotland’s Digital Technologies: Summary Report,’ p.6

163. The Scottish Government (2018) ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.2

164. The City (2019), ‘Exporting from across Britain 2019’, p.20: www.thecityuk.com/assets/2019/Report- PDFs/9baaa1d776/Exporting-from-across-Britain.pdf

165. The City (2019), ‘Enabling growth across the UK 2019’, p.30: www.thecityuk.com/assets/2019/Report-PDFs/ dfb6be8b79/Enabling-growth-across-the-UK-2019. pdf

166. The City (2019), ‘Enabling growth across the UK 2019’, p.30-31

167. Hannah Burley (2019), ‘Scotland finance exports grow faster than London’, The Scotsman: www.scotsman. com/business/companies/scottish-finance-exports- grow-faster-than-london-1-4901150

168. The City (2018), ‘Exporting from across Britain’, p.7: www.thecityuk.com/assets/2018/Reports-PDF/ d698e98915/Exporting-from-across-Britain.pdf

169. The City (2018), ‘Exporting from across Britain’, p.19

170. The City (2019), ‘Enabling growth across the UK 2019’,p.30-31
171. The City (2019), ‘Exporting from across Britain 2019’,p.20
172. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Export StatisticsScotland’, p.41
173. The Guardian (2019), ‘City firms prepare to shift£800bn out of UK as Brexit looms’: www.theguardian. com/business/2019/jan/07/city-firms-prepare-to- shift-800bn-out-of-uk-as-brexit-looms

174. The City (2019), ‘Enabling growth across the UK 2019’

175. Scottish Enterprise, ‘Life Science Cluster Database’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Business/Publications/GrowthSectors/ LifeSciencesSourcebook

176. Scottish Enterprise, ‘Life Science Cluster Database’ 177. Scottish Enterprise, ‘Life Science Cluster Database’ 178. Life Sciences Scotland (2017), ‘Life Sciences Strategy for Scotland – ‘2025 Vision’: www.lifesciencesscotland.com/about-life-sciences-scotland/strategy

179. Clarivate Analytics (2018), ‘State of Innovation Report 2017: The Relentless Desire to Advance’, p.109: clarivate.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/ The_State_of_Innovation_Report_2017.pdf

180. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Invest’: www.lifesciencesscotland.com/invest

  1. University of Dundee, ‘Research Impact’: www.dundee.ac.uk/research/aboutourresearch/researchimpact/
  2. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Growth SectorStatistics’ Database – Table 5.2
  3. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Animal Bioscience,Aquaculture and Agritech’: www.lifesciencesscotland. com/key-subsectors/animal-bioscience-aquaculture- agritech
  4. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Animal Bioscience, Aquaculture and Agritech’
  5. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Animal Bioscience, Aquaculture and Agritech’
  6. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Animal Bioscience, Aquaculture and Agritech’
  7. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Animal Bioscience, Aquaculture and Agritech’
  8. Life Sciences in Scotland, ‘Invest’: www. lifesciencesscotland.com/invest
  9. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Export Statistics Scotland’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/ Economy/Exports/ESSPublication/ESSExcel
  10. Chemical Sciences Scotland (2015), ‘Life and Chemical Sciences Life Sciences in Manufacturing Strategy
    for Scotland’, p.3: www.lifesciencesscotland.com/ wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Life-and-Chemical- Sciences-Manufacturing-Strategy-2015.pdf
  11. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Chemical Sciences Facts’: www.scottish-enterprise.com/learning-zone/ research-and-publications/components-folder/ research-and-publications-listings/scotlands- chemical-sciences-facts
  12. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Chemical Sciences Facts’
  13. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Chemical Sciences Facts’
  14. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Chemical Sciences Facts’
  15. The Guardian, ‘University guide 2018: league tablefor chemistry‘: www.theguardian.com/education/ ng-interactive/2017/may/16/university-guide-2018- league-table-for-chemistry
  16. Chemical Sciences Scotland (2015), ‘Life and Chemical Sciences Life Sciences in Manufacturing Strategy for Scotland’, p.3
  17. Chemical Sciences Association (2016), ‘Working together’, p.1: www.cia.org.uk/LinkClick. aspx?fileticket=Rcv6yTsCc3E%3D&portalid=0
  18. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Chemical Sciences Facts’; The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Export Statistics Scotland2017’
  19. Scottish Enterprise (2019), ‘Scottish economic statistics’:www.scottish-enterprise.com/learning- zone/research-and-publications/components- folder/research-and-publications-listings/scottish- economic-statistics
  20. ChemicalServicesScotland(2018):www. chemicalsciencesscotland.com/news/grangemouth- future-vision-unveiled-by-chemical-sciences- scotland/
  21. Insider(2018),‘£56mMedicinesManufacturing Innovation Centre goes to Inchinnan’: www.insider. co.uk/news/56m-medicines-manufacturing- innovation-centre-12714851
  22. BBC (2019), ‘Scottish businesses fear cost of Brexit, new study finds’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-46945512
  23. House of Commons (2019), Brexit and chemicals regulation (REACH): https://researchbriefings. parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP- 8403
  24. Skills Development Scotland (2016), ‘Scotland’s Digital Technologies: Summary Report’, pg 3-6: www. skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/43306/ scotlands-digital-technologies-summary-report.pdf
  25. Skills Development Scotland (2016), ‘Scotland’s Digital Technologies: Summary Report’, pg 3-6
  26. Skills Development Scotland (2016), ‘Scotland’s Digital Technologies: Summary Report’, pg 14
  27. The City of Edinburgh Council (2018), ‘Edinburgh Economic Strategy: Enabling Good Growth’, p.9: www. edinburgh.gov.uk/download/downloads/id/11438/ economic_strategy_2018.pdf
  28. Ernst & Young (2019), ‘Standing tall EY’s Attractiveness Survey Scotland’, p. 11: www.ey.com/Publication/ vwLUAssets/ey-scotland-attractiveness-survey- 2019/$FILE/EY-scotland-attractiveness-survey-2019. PDF
  29. Ernst & Young (2019). ‘Standing tall EY’s Attractiveness Survey Scotland,’ p.11
  30. BEIS (2017), ’Enabling Technologies in Scotland’s Central Belt’: http://glasgoweconomicleadership. com/wp-content/uploads/GEL-SIA-summary- FINAL-201708.pdf
  31. McDonald E. & Richmond K. (2019), ‘Measuring Scotland’s Economic Performance’: http:// scottishtrends.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/ Scottish-Productivity-May-2019-final.pdf
  32. UK Tech News (2018), ’Edinburgh Was the Fastest Growing Tech Hub in the UK during 2017’: www. uktech.news/tech-hubs/scotland/edinburgh/report- edinburgh-was-the-fastest-growing-tech-hub-in-the- uk-during-2017-20171205
  33. Nesta (2019), ’Launching the European Digital Social Innovation Index’: www.nesta.org.uk/blog/launching- european-digital-social-innovation-index/
  34. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.2
  35. TheScottishGovernment(2019),‘GrowthSector Statistics’ Database – Table 1.2
  36. TIGA(2019),‘HeadcountGrowthintheScottishVideo Games Industry Grinds to a Halt’: tiga.org/news/ growth-in-the-scottish-video-games-industry-grinds- to-a-halt
  37. TheTimes(2019),’Scotland’sDigitalIndustry Continues to Expand’: www.thetimes.co.uk/article/ scotland-s-digital-industry-is-continuing-to-expand- n909cjfkn
  1. FutureScot (2019), ’Scotland’s Tech Sector Still
    In Growth Mode Despite Political Uncertainty’: futurescot.com/scotlandis-industry-survey-2019/
  2. Financial Times (2019), ’Net migration from EU
    to UK falls 70% since Brexit vote’: www.ft.com/ content/960b4672-3b3e-11e9-b72b-2c7f526ca5d0
  3. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Briefing – Creative Industries’: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0054/00547579.docx
  4. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Growth Sector Briefing – Creative Industries’
  5. Chortle (2018), ’The Economics of
    Edinburgh Fringe’: www.chortle.co.uk/ correspondents/2018/08/11/40806/the_economics_ of_the_edinburgh_fringe
  6. Edinburgh Fringe (2018), ’Annual Review 2018’: www. edfringe.com/learn/fringe-society/annual-review/ annual-review-2018
  7. The Scottish Government (2018), ’Annual Business Statistics’: www2.gov.scot/ Resource/0054/00547580.pdf
  8. BOP (2018), ’Edinburgh Festivals Impact Study: Final Report’, p.77: www.edinburghfestivalcity.com/ assets/000/000/338/BOP_Edinburgh_Festivals_ Impact_-_01.05.11_original.pdf?1411035388
  9. Edinburgh International Book Festival (2018), ’Edinburgh International Book Festival Enjoys Another Extraordinarily Successful Year’: www. edbookfest.co.uk/news/edinburgh-international- book-festival-enjoys-another-extraordinary- successful-year
  10. Audit Scotland (2016), ’Supporting Scotland’s Economic Growth: Case Studies’: www.audit-scotland. gov.uk/uploads/docs/report/2016/nr_160714_ economic_growth_supp3.pdf
  11. Insider (2018), ’Film and TV Spending in Scotland Hits New Record’: www.insider.co.uk/news/film-tv- spending-creative-scotland-13114148
  12. Creative Scotland (2018), ‘£3million fund to
    boost television production announed’: www. creativescotland.com/what-we-do/latest-news/ archive/2018/08/3million-fund-to-boost-television- production-announced
  13. Creative Scotland (2017), ’Implications of the UK European Union membership referendum for the creative and cultural sector in Scotland: Report on survey findings’: www.creativescotland.com/__data/ assets/pdf_file/0006/36681/EU-Referendum- Creative-Cultural-Sector-Scotland-Survey-Findings. pdf
  14. Creative Scotland (2017), ’Implications of the UK European Union membership referendum’

232. Universities Scotland (2017), ‘Going for Growth: A Summary of Universities Scotland’s Submission to the 2017 Spending Review’, p. 1: www.universities- scotland.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Going- for-Growth-Spending-Review-Short.pdf

233. Universities Scotland (2017), ‘Going for Growth – Our submission to the 2017 Spending Review’: www. universities-scotland.ac.uk/campaigns/going-for- growth/

234. BiGGAR Economics (2010), ‘The contribution of Scottish universities’, p.1: universities-scotland.ac.uk/ wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Biggar-Economics- Summary-Report-June-2010.pdf

235. Universities Scotland (2017), ‘Going for Growth: A Summary of Universities Scotland’s Submission to the 2017 Spending Review’, p. 1: www.universities- scotland.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Going- for-Growth-Spending-Review-Short.pdf

236. Universities Scotland (2017), ‘Going for Growth’, p. 1 237. Universities Scotland (2017), ‘Going for Growth’, p. 3 238. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘The Impact of International Students in Scotland’, p.7: www.gov.scot/ binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/ corporate-report/2018/03/impact-international- students-scotland-scottish-government- response-migration-advisory-committees/ documents/00532586-pdf/00532586-pdf/ govscot%3Adocument

239. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘The Impact of International Students in Scotland’, p.15

240. Universtities Scotland, ‘Member Universities’: www. universities-scotland.ac.uk/member-universities

241. Times Higher Education (2019), ‘Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2018-19)’: www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university- rankings/2019/world-ranking

242. Eurostat (2017), ‘Population aged 25-64 by educational attainment level, sex’

243. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘Record Number of Scots Accepted to University’: news.gov.scot/news/ record-number-of-scots-accepted-to-university

244. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘Record Number of Scots Accepted to University’

245. Scottish Parliament (2018), ‘European Union Funding in Scotland’: sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/ published/2018/9/28/European-Union-funding-in- Scotland/SB%2018-61.pdf

246. Scottish Parliament (2018), ‘European Union Funding in Scotland’

247. The National, ‘Brexit: Scotland hit by brain drain as 2500 EU academics quit’: www.thenational.scot/ news/18125830.scotland-hit-brexit-brain-drain-eu-academics-leave-universities/

  1. The Scottish Government (2018), ’The Impact ofInternational Students in Scotland’: www.gov. scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/corporate-report/2018/03/ impact-international-students-scotland-scottish- government-response-migration-advisory- committees/documents/00532586-pdf/00532586- pdf/govscot%3Adocument/00532586. pdf?forceDownload=true
  2. The Scottish Government (2017), ’Construction Scotland: Economic Impact of the Sector’: www. parliament.scot/S5_EconomyJobsFairWork/ Meeting%20Papers/20190402-Papers_for_ Meeting(Web).pdf
  3. Skills Development Scotland (2016), ’Highlands and Islands: Skills Assessment 2016’: www. skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/40985/ highlands-islands.pdf
  4. The Scotsman (2018), ’Scotland Building More Affordable Homes than England’: www.scotsman. com/news/politics/scotland-building-more- affordable-homes-than-england-1-4676278
  5. Scottish Housing News (2018), ’10,000 Workers Needed to Meet Demand in Scottish Construction Sector’: www.scottishhousingnews.com/ article/10000-workers-needed-meet-demand- scottish-construction-sector
  6. Insider, ‘Comment: Building on our country’s strength to drive the economy forward’: www.insider.co.uk/ special-reports/comment-building-countrys- strength-drive-10634282
  7. Dundee and Angus College (2018), ’Regional Outcome Agreement’:www.aspenpeople.co.uk/DNA/docs/ D-A%20College%20ROA%202018-19%20Final%20 V3.pdf
  8. The Scottish Government (2018), ’Scotland’s Construction Industry: Workforce, Imports and Housing Demands’: www.gov.scot/binaries/content/ documents/govscot/publications/minutes/2018/11/ joint-housing-policy-and-delivery-group-meeting- november-2018/documents/jhpdg-november- 2018-scotlands-construction-and-housing/ jhpdg-november-2018-scotlands-construction-and- housing/govscot%3Adocument/JHPDG%2B-%2BSc otland%2527s%2BConstruction%2Band%2BHousin g%2BIndustry.pdf
  9. Scotland is Now: www.scotland.org/news/scotland- voted-most-beautiful-country-in-the-world
  10. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Tourism in Scotland: The Economic Contribution of the Sector’, p.29: www.gov.scot/publications/tourism-scotland- economic-contribution-sector/pages/5/,
  11. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Tourism in Scotland: The Economic Contribution of the Sector’, p.5
  12. The Scottish Government (2018), ’Understanding the Scottish Rural Economy: Research Paper’: www.gov.scot/publications/understanding-scottish-rural- economy/pages/1/
  13. Visit Scotland (2018), ‘Attractions See Increase in Visitors’: www.visitscotland.org/news/2019/asva- visitor-figures-2018
  14. BBC(2018),‘WhyaretouristsflockingtoScotland?’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-43418122
  15. Visit Scotland (2018), ‘Attractions See Increase in Visitors’: www.visitscotland.org/news/2019/asva- visitor-figures-2018
  16. BBC (2018), ‘Scotland’s Hotels Outperform rest of UK’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland- business-43856439
  17. The Scottish Government (2018), ’Tourism in Scotland: The Economic Contribution of the Sector’
  18. Historic Environment Scotland (2018), ‘Record- breaking visitor figures at Scotland’s historic sites’: www.historicenvironment.scot/about-us/news/ record-breaking-visitor-figures-at-scotland-s-historic- sites/
  19. Edinburgh Festivals (2015), ‘Impact Study’, p.14: www. edinburghfestivalcity.com/assets/000/001/964/ Edinburgh_Festivals_-_2015_Impact_Study_Final_ Report_original.pdf?1469537463
  20. Edinburgh Festivals (2015), ‘Impact Study’, p.17
  21. Scottish Golf (2017), ‘Golf Tourism Driving Scotland’s Economy’: www.scottishgolf.org/golf-tourism-driving- scotlands-economy/
  22. The Scottish Government (2019), ’Rise In European Visitors’: www.gov.scot/news/rise-in-european- visitors/
  23. The Scottish Government (2019),’Rise In European Visitors’
  24. ADSGroup(2017),‘Scotland’sSpaceSectorPlays Leading Role as ADS Industries Grow to £6bn’: www.adsgroup.org.uk/news/newsroom/scotland-s-space- sector-plays-leading-role-as-ads-industries-grow-to- 6bn/Additional author correspondence with ADS Group.
  25. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Scotland’s £4bn Space Sector’: news.gov.scot/news/scotlands-gbp-4- billion-space-sector
  26. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Scotland’s £4bn Space Sector’
  27. Author correspondence with ADS Group
  28. London Economics (2018), ‘Size and Health of the UK Space Industry 2018’, p.22: assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/774450/LE-SHUKSI_2018- SUMMARY_REPORT-FINAL-Issue4-S2C250119.pdf
  29. The Press and Journal (2018), ‘Sutherland Spaceport Could Create 400 Jobs’: www.pressandjournal.co.uk/ fp/news/highlands/1522054/sutherland-spaceport- could-create-400-jobs-and-reverse-population- decline/
  30. BBC (2017), ‘Scottish space industry soaring high’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/38804310
  31. BBC (2014), ‘Scotland could be base for spaceport says UK Government’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-28276525
  1. BBC (2018), ‘Plans for First Rocket Launch Dedicatedto Scottish Satelite’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-44194126
  2. European Parliament (2018), ‘EU Space Programme’:www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2018/628300/EPRS_BRI(2018)628300_EN.pdf
  3. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s Carers’:www.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-carers/pages/2/
  4. Carers Trust (2015), ‘Carers Trust Scotland’: carers.org/country/carers-trust-scotland
  5. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s Carers’
  6. Shared Care Scotland (2017), ‘Not Just a Carer’: www.sharedcarescotland.org.uk/notjustacarer/
  7. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s Carers’
  8. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s Carers’,Table: Age & Gender
  9. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘Scotland’s Carers’
  10. Close the Gap (2017), ‘Women, Work and Poverty inScotland: What You Need to Know’: www.closethegap. org.uk/content/resources/1—Women-work-and- poverty-what-you-need-to-know.pdf
  11. The Scottish Government (2018),’ Over 75,000 Carers ReceiveNewPayment’:www.gov.scot/news/over-75- 000-carers-receive-new-payment/
  12. Based on the author’s calculations on data available at the World Bank: info.worldbank.org/governance/ wgi/#reports
  13. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘Scottish Attitudes Survey: Attitudes to Government, the Economy
    and Public Services’, p.14: www.gov.scot/binaries/ content/documents/govscot/publications/ statistics/2018/06/scottish-social-attitudes-attitudes- government-economy-public-services-2017/ documents/00537402-pdf/00537402-pdf/ govscot%3Adocument/00537402.pdf
  14. Based on the author’s calculations on data available at the World Bank
  15. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘Scottish Attitudes Survey: Attitudes to Government, the Economy and Public Services’, p.7
  16. The Scottish Government (2017), ‘Scottish Attitudes Survey: Attitudes to Government, the Economy and Public Services’, p.10
  17. NHS Digital (2018), ‘Hospital Accident and Emergency Activity, 2017-18: Home Nations Comparative Analysis’: digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/ publications/statistical/hospital-accident— emergency-activity/2017-18
  18. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Country and Regional Public Sector Finances Expenditure Tables’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/governmentpublicsectorandtaxes/publicsectorfinance/datasets/countryandregionalpublicsectorfinancesexpendituretables
  19. British Medical Association (2017), ‘State of the Health System: Beds in the NHS’:https://www.bma.org.uk//media/files/pdfs/collective%20voice/policy%20research/nhs%20structure%20and%20delivery/ nhs%20bed%20occupancy/nhs-bed-occupancy- report-feb2017.pdf
  20. BBC (2019), ‘Scotland Has More GPs Than Restof UK, Study Finds’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-48191210.
  21. What Scotland Thinks (2014), ‘Do you think health and safety regulations, consumer protection and competition law should be devolved to the Scottish government, or remain with Westminster?’: whatscotlandthinks.org/questions/do-you-think- health-and-safety-regulations-consumer-protection- and-competition
  22. What Scotland Thinks (2014), ‘Should the Scottish Parliament Have Control Over VAT’: whatscotlandthinks.org/questions/should-the- scottish-parliament-have-control-over-vat
  23. WhatScotlandThinks(2014),‘ShouldtheScottish Parliament Have Control Over Corporation Tax’: whatscotlandthinks.org/questions/should-the- scottish-parliament-have-control-over-corporation- tax-1
  24. What Scotland Thinks (2014) ‘Do you believe the new powers devolved to the Scottish Parliament should include control of oil and gas tax revenues generated in Scottish waters?’: whatscotlandthinks.org/ questions/do-you-believe-the-new-powers-devolved- to-the-scottish-parliament-should-inclu-3
  25. What Scotland Thinks (2014), ‘Do you believe the new powers devolved to the Scottish Parliament should include control of the welfare and benefits system?’: whatscotlandthinks.org/questions/do-you- believe-the-new-powers-devolved-to-the-scottish- parliament-should-inclu-1
  26. What Scotland Thinks (2014), ‘Do You Think how Elections to the Scottish Parliament are Run Should be Devolved to the Scottish Government’: whatscotlandthinks.org/questions/do-you-think- how-elections-to-the-scottish-parliament-are-run- should-be-devolve
  27. House of Lords, Select Committee on the Constitution, ‘12th Report of Session 2009–10: Referendums in the United Kingdom’: https:// publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldconst/99/99.pdf
  1. Eurostat (2019), ‘Gross Domestic Product at MarketPrices’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/ view/tec00001/default/table?lang=en; Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts 2018, Q4’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Economy/QNA2018Q4
  2. Office for National Statistics (2015),
    ‘Population Density Tables’: www.ons.gov. uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/ populationandmigration/populationestimates/ datasets/populationdensitytables; Scottish Government (2019), ‘Facts and Figures About Scotland’s Sea Area’: marine.gov.scot/data/facts-and- figures-about-scotlands-sea-area-coastline-length- sea-area-sq-kms
  3. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Scotland, Quarter 4 2018’, p.7
  4. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population on 1 January by Age and Sex’: appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show. do?dataset=demo_pjan&lang=en
  5. Eurostat (2019), ‘Main Tables – GDP Aggregates’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/national-accounts/data/ main-tables
  6. IMF (2019), ‘General Government Gross Debt’: www. imf.org/external/datamapper/[email protected] WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD/BEL/GBR; The Global Economy (2017), ‘Exports, percent of GDP – Country rankings’: www.theglobaleconomy.com/ rankings/Exports/#United-Kingdom; OECD (2019), ‘Net pension replacement rates’: data.oecd.org/ pension/net-pension-replacement-rates.htm
  7. Eurostat (2019),’Population and Population Change Statistics’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Population_and_population_change_statistics#Population_change_at_a_national_level
  8. IMF (2019), ‘General Government Gross Debt’
  9. The Global Economy (2017), ‘Exports, percent of GDP’;OECD (2019), ‘Net pension replacement rates’
  10. OECD (2019), ‘Net pension replacement rates’
  11. Eurostat (2019), ’Labour productivity per personemployed and hour worked’: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/tesem160
  12. Author’s own calculations: OECD (2019), ‘AverageUsual Weekly Hours Worked on the Main Job’: stats. oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=AVE_HRS; OECD (2019); ‘Employment Rate’: data.oecd.org/emp/ employment-rate.htm#indicator-chart; OECD (2019), ‘Gross Domestic Product’: data.oecd.org/gdp/gross- domestic-product-gdp.htm
  13. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population’; Eurostat (2019),’ GDP Aggregates’; EUR:GBP correct as of July 2019
  14. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population’; Eurostat (2019), ‘GDPAggregates’
  15. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population’; Eurostat (2019), ‘GDPAggregates’
  16. Eurostat (2019), ‘Population’; Eurostat (2019), ‘GDPAggregates’
  17. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Scotland, Quarter 4 2018’, p.7
  18. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Scotland, Quarter 4 2018’, p.7
  19. Fraser of Allander (2019), ‘GDP per capita-the importance of oil, and are Scots actually better off?’: fraserofallander.org/scottish-economy/gdp-per- capita-the-importance-of-oil-and-are-scots-actually- better-off/
  20. The World Bank (2018), ‘GDP growth’: data.worldbank. org/indicator/ny.gdp.mktp.kd.zg
  21. Eurostat (2018), ‘Productivity per person and per hour worked’; IMF (2018), ‘GDP per capita’
  22. IMF (2018), ‘Gross Government Debt’
  23. OECD (2019), ‘Net pension replacement rates’
  24. Author’s personal correspondence with ADSGroup
  25. Scottish Financial Review (2019), ‘Scots Space Industry ‘To Be Worth £4bn By 2030’: scottishfinancialreview.com/2019/03/14/scotlands- space-industry-to-be-worth-4bn-by-2030/
  26. FraserofAllander(2019),‘GDPpercapita-the importance of oil, and are Scots actually better off?’
  27. The Scottish Government (2019), ‘Scotland’s Labour Market’: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/ Labour-Market/LMTrends
  28. Skills Development Scotland (2018), ‘Annual Participation Measure for 16-19 Year Olds in Scotland 2018’, p.7;  Scottish Government (2019), ‘Quarterly Labour Market Briefing – February 2019’, p.6: www2. gov.scot/Resource/0054/00546705.pdf
  29. Office for National Statistics (2018), ‘Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Time Series of Selected Estimates’: www.ons.gov.uk/ employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/ earningsandworkinghours/datasets/ ashe1997to2015selectedestimates
  30. Scottish Government (2019), ‘The Gender Pay Gap: Facts and Figures – 2018’, p.8: sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep. azureedge.net/published/2019/2/4/The-gender-pay- gap—facts-and-figures—2018/SB%2019-08.pdf
  31. Scottish Government (2019), ‘Unemployment rate at record low for fifth consecutive month’: blogs.gov.scot/scotlands-economy/2019/05/14/ unemployment-rate-at-record-low-for-fifth- consecutive-month/
  32. The Scottish Parliament (2018), ‘Scotland’s Economic Performance’, p.20-22: sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep. azureedge.net/published/EJFW/2018/6/21/Scotland- s-Economic-Performance-1/EJFWS052018R05.pdf
  33. Ernst and Young (2018), ‘Annual attractiveness survey’, p.3-7
  34. Centre for Economics and Business Research (2017), ‘The economic contribution of the Maritime sector in Scotland’, p.16-17: www.maritimeuk.org/value/ scottish-maritime-sector/
  35. Author’s own calculations: Scottish Government (2018), ‘Satellite Accounts for Extra-Regio Economic Activities’, p.11-13; Scottish Government (2019),‘GDPQuarterlyNationalAccounts,Q4;Officefor National Statistics (2019), ‘Total Trade: Exports’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/nationalaccounts/balanceofpayments/timeseries/ikbh/mret; Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Gross Domestic Product at Current Market Prices’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/ grossdomesticproductgdp/timeseries/ybha/qna
  1. The Scottish Government, (2018), ‘Satellite Accounts for Extra-Regio Economic Activities.’; Export Statistics Scotland (2019), ‘Export Statistics Scotland 2017’,
    p.7; SPICe (2016) ‘Export Statistics Scotland 2014.’ Population data from: ONS (2018), ‘Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2017’; UK (excluding Scotland) exports from: Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Balance of Payments: Exports: Total Trade in Goods & Services: CP NSA £m Time Series’
  2. Scottish Government (2019), ‘No-deal Brexit – Economic Implications for Scotland’, p.4-5: www. gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/publication/2019/02/deal-brexit- economic-implications-scotland/documents/ deal-brexit-economic-implications-scotland/ deal-brexit-economic-implications-scotland/ govscot%3Adocument/deal-brexit-economic- implications-scotland.pdf
  3. The Scottish Government (2019) ‘GDP Quarterly National Accounts Supplementary Tables’, Table 10
  4. Scottish Government (2019), ‘No-deal Brexit – Economic Implications for Scotland’, p.4
  5. Scottish Government (2019), ‘No-deal Brexit – Economic Implications for Scotland’, p.4
  6. BBC (2018), ‘Brexit: Food Prices Could Rise 10%, says Mark Carney’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/ business-46439969
  7. BBC (2018), ‘Brexit: Food Prices Could Rise 10%, says Mark Carney’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/ business-46439969
  8. Independent (2019), ‘Brexit: Food Prices to Rise up
    to 20% “Almost Instantaneously” After Leaving EU, Warns Birds Eye Boss’: www.independent.co.uk/ news/business/news/brexit-food-price-rise-birds-eye- warning-wto-tariffs-a8784246.html
  9. The Guardian (2019), ‘Sterling Slumps to New Two- Year Low Below $1.23 Amid No-Deal Brexit Fears’: www.theguardian.com/business/live/2019/jul/29/ sterling-new-two-year-low-no-deal-brexit-fears- pound-euro-us-dollar-currencies-business-live
  10. Bloomberg (2019), ‘Pound Could Plunge to Parity AgainstDollaronaNo-Dealbrexit’:www.bloomberg. com/news/articles/2019-07-17/pound-seen-plunging- to-parity-against-dollar-on-a-no-deal-brexit
  11. TheInstituteforFiscalStudies(2016),‘TheExposure of Households’ Food Sending Tariff Changes and Exchanged Rate Movements’, p.3: www.ifs.org.uk/ uploads/publications/bns/BN213.pd
  12. The Pharmaceutical Journal (2017), ‘Brexit could hinder medicines supply to the UK’: www. pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/ news/brexit-could-hinder-medicines-supply-to-uk- mps-told/20204082.article?firstPass=false
  13. BBC (2018), ‘What would a Brexit ‘No-Deal’ Look Like?”: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-45047874
  14. The Guardian (2019), ‘UK Food Imports from EU Face ‘£9bn Tarriff Bill’ Under No-Deal Brexit’: www. theguardian.com/politics/2019/feb/23/uk-food- imports-from-eu-face-9bn-tariff-bill-under-no-deal- brexit
  15. Walsh Mushroom (2017), Walsh Mushrooms Acquires Golden Mushrooms in Positive Move for Irish Mushroom Industry’: www.walshmushrooms.com/ Walsh_Mushrooms_acquires_Golden_Mushrooms_ in_positive_move_for_Irish_mushroom_industry– post–35.html
  16. The Rice Association (2017), ‘The UK Rice Industry’: http://www.riceassociation.org.uk/content/1/3/rice- in-the-uk.html
  17. The Scottish Government (2016), ‘The European Regional Development Fund in Scotland,’ p.1: www. gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/corporate-report/2017/09/european- regional-development-fund-air-2015/documents/ citizen-summary-european-regional-development- fund-2015-pdf/citizen-summary-european-regional- development-fund-2015-pdf/govscot:document/ Citizen%20Summary%20European%20 Regional%20Development%20Fund%202015.pdf
  18. The Scottish Government (2015), ‘The European Social Fund in Scotland,’ p.4: www.gov.scot/ binaries/content/documents/govscot/ publications/factsheet/2015/07/esf-citizens- summary/documents/european-social-fund- citizens-summary-pdf/european-social-fund- citizens-summary-pdf/govscot%3Adocument/ European%2BSocial%2BFund%2B- %2Bcitizens%2527%2Bsummary.pdf
  19. Author’s personal correspondence with SRUC Research Team
  20. Author’s own calculations, Business for Scotland (2016): www.businessforscotland.com/fm-nicola- sturgeon-must-protect-scotland-brexit-fallout/ FraserofAllanderInstitute(2019),‘GDPpercapita- the importance of oil, and are Scots actually better off?’: fraserofallander.org/scottish-economy/gdp-per-capita-the-importance-of-oil-and-are-scots-actually- better-off/, The Scottish Government’s experimental data: www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/ Economy/GERS/RelatedAreas/LRfiscalbalances2014
  1. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland 2017 – 18’, p.14
  2. Authors calculations based on: the Scottish Government (2018), ‘Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland 2017-18’, p.27; a composite of Scottish Government, local authority and public corporations spending
  3. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland 2017-18’, p.3
  4. BBC (2018), ‘Scottish public finances show improvement’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland- scotland-politics-45260268; The Scotsman (2019), ‘Scottish Government demands more powers to deal with financial “blackhole”’: www.scotsman.com/ news/politics/scottish-government-demands-more- powers-to-deal-with-financial-blackhole-1-4943775
  5. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Government ExpenditureandRevenueScotland2017-18’,p.5
  6. Based on the author’s calculations of the cumulative amount of UK public sector debt interest assigned to Scotland since 1980/81, as this appears in GERS
  7. The Scottish Government’s experimental data: www2. gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/GERS/ RelatedAreas/LRfiscalbalances2014
  8. Based on the author’s calculations in line with
    the GERS figures and the Scottish Government’s experimental data: www2.gov.scot/Topics/ Statistics/Browse/Economy/GERS/RelatedAreas/ LRfiscalbalances2014
  9. Based on the author’s calculations in line with
    the GERS figures and the Scottish Government’s experimental data: www2.gov.scot/Topics/ Statistics/Browse/Economy/GERS/RelatedAreas/ LRfiscalbalances2014
  10. Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘UK government debt and deficit: March 2019’: www.ons.gov.uk/ economy/governmentpublicsectorandtaxes/ publicspending/bulletins/ ukgovernmentdebtanddeficitforeurostatmaast/ march2019
  11. Based on the author’s calculations of what would the case be if Scotland were not burdened with the UK public sector debt interest since 1980/81, when GERS was first published
  12. Based on the author’s calculations of what would be the difference between the current cumulative position of Scotland’s finances, according to GERS, and the cumulative financial position of Scotland without the UK public sector debt interest
  13. Based on the author’s calculations of the case in which Scotland were not burdened by the UK publicsectordebtinterestanddecidedtoputthe accumulated, since 1980/81, surpluses into an oil fund similar to that of Norway’s and with the same annual rates of return as Norway’s British Petroleum (2019),
  14. ‘BP Statistical Review of World Energy’: www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/ business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy- economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019- full-report.pdf
  15. Norges Investment Bank (2019), ‘The Fund’, based on exchange rate of 1 NOK: 0.09243 GBP
  16. Based on the author’s calculations: 385bn of the worth of the hypothetical Scotland’s national oil/ pension fund plus the cumulative illustrative deficit of £162.5bn of the GERS reports
  17. Business for Scotland video channel, ‘A pound spent in Croydon is far more of value to the country than a pound spent in Strathclyde’; www.youtube.com/ watch?v=9N2AlpxRY9c
  18. UK Government (2019), ‘Working for DVLA’: www.gov. uk/government/organisations/driver-and-vehicle- licensing-agency/about/recruitment
  19. Authors calculations: Scotland population percentage share of total (6,000) staff at DVLA
  20. InstituteforGovernment(2019),‘CivilServicePay’: www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/explainers/civil- service-pay
  21. Author’s calculations: Scotland employment share of DVLA staff multiplied by the median salary of a civil servant
  22. Author’s own calculations: based on averageweekly household spending in Scotland: Office for National Statistics (2019), ‘Family Spending in the UK: April 2017 to March 2018’: www.ons. gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/ personalandhouseholdfinances/expenditure/ bulletins/familyspendingintheuk/ financialyearending2018
  23. Author’s own calculation: basic VAT rate of 20% applied to total estimated spending of 498 civil servants
  24. Author’s own calculation: based on average office price per square foot: Lambert Smith Hampton (2019), ‘Explore Costs’: www.lsh.co.uk/tocs/metrics
  25. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘The Sustainable Economic Growth Commission’, p.38
  26. Authors own calculations based on: Health and social care funding (2019): www.health.org.uk/news-and- comment/blogs/health-and-social-care-funding
  27. Authors own calculations based on salary ranges for medical staff published on April 2019
  28. ONS (2019), ‘UK Government Debt and Deficit: March 2019’: www.ons.gov.uk/ economy/governmentpublicsectorandtaxes/ publicspending/bulletins/ukgovernmentdebtand deficitforeurostatmaast/march2019
  29. BBC (2018), ‘UK growth to be slowest in G20 this year, says OECD’: www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-43384718
  30. OECD(2019),‘Netpensionreplacementrates’
  31. World Bank (2019), ‘Worldwide Governance Indicators’
  1. Based on UK excluding Scotland exports divided by population excluding Scotland; ONS (2019) ‘UK Trade: January 2019’: www.ons.gov.uk/economy/ nationalaccounts/balanceofpayments/bulletins/ uktrade/january2019
  2. The Guardian (2018), ‘UK Wages Have Not Recovered to Pre-Crisis Levels’: www.theguardian.com/ business/2018/sep/12/uk-wages-have-not-yet- recovered-to-pre-crisis-levels-says-ifs
  3. The Guardian (2017), ‘Record 910,000 UK Workers on Zero hours Contacts’: www.theguardian.com/ business/2017/mar/03/zero-hours-contracts-uk- record-high
  4. Trade Union Congress (2019), ‘British workers putting in longest hours in the EU, TUC analysis finds‘: www. tuc.org.uk/news/british-workers-putting-longest- hours-eu-tuc-analysis-finds
  5. Eurostat (2018), ‘Productivity per person and per hour worked’; IMF (2018), ‘GDP per capita’
  6. RAC (2014), ‘UK Drivers Still Facing Highest Fuel Taxes in Europe’: www.racfoundation.org/media-centre/ uk-drivers-still-facing-highest-fuel-tax-in-eu-despite- duty-freeze
  7. Alston, P. (2018), ‘Statement on Visit to the United Kingdom, by Professor Philip Alston, United Nations – Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights‘: www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Poverty/ EOM_GB_16Nov2018.pdf
  8. The Guardian (2019), ‘Brexit weekly briefing: Boris Johnson plays no-deal chicken with EU’: www. theguardian.com/politics/2019/jul/30/brexit-weekly- briefing-boris-johnson-plays-no-deal-chicken-with-eu
  9. Wishart, P (2016), ‘House of Lords Reform
    and Size of the House of Commons‘ Hansard: hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-10-19/ debates/CA0685E2-6A97-43EE-8524- 94C27A53AB25/HouseOfLordsReform AndSizeOfTheHouseOfCommons
  10. UK Oil and Gas Authority (2019), ‘Government Revenues from UK oil and gas production’: www. ogauthority.co.uk/media/5389/tax_table_mar_2019. pdf
  11. Norwegian Petroleum (2019), ‘The Government’s revenues’: www.norskpetroleum.no/en/economy/ governments-revenues/
  12. BP (2018), ‘BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018’: www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business- sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/ statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2018-full-report.pdf
  13. Statista,‘BrentCrudeoilpricesfrom2014to2020’: www.statista.com/statistics/409404/forecast-for-uk- brent-crude-oil-prices/
  14. ONS(2018),‘The2008Recession10YearsOn:A Decade After the Beginning of the Recession, How Has The UK Economy Recovered?’: www.ons.gov. uk/economy/grossdomesticproductgdp/articles/ the2008recession10yearson/2018-04-30
  15. TheScottishGovernment(2014),‘Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland’: www.gov.scot/ publications/government-expenditure-revenue- scotland-2013-14/
  16. UKOilandGasAuthority(2019),‘Government Revenues from UK oil and gas production’
  17. UK Government (2017), ‘Petroleum Revenue Tax’: www.gov.uk/guidance/oil-gas-and-mining- petroleum-revenue-tax
  18. UK Government (2015), ‘Oil and Gas: Supplementary Charge’: www.gov.uk/guidance/oil-gas-and-mining- supplementary-charge
  19. UK Oil and Gas Authority (2018), ‘UKCS Operating Costs Remain Stable With Slight Rise in 2017’: www. ogauthority.co.uk/news-publications/news/2018/ ukcs-operating-costs-remain-stable-with-slight-rise- in-2017/
  20. Royal Dutch Shell (2018), ‘Report on payments to governments for the year 2018’: www.shell. com/sustainability/transparency/payments- to-governments/_jcr_content/par/textimage. stream/1554163266774/ 0354390d1d06f4fe154700 810bc50102817feb82/royal-dutch-shell-the- payments-to-governments-report-for-the-year-2018. pdf
  21. CNBC (2019), ‘Shell Full Year Profits Surges to Four Year High, Beating Expectations’: www.cnbc. com/2019/01/31/shell-earnings-full-year-profits-soar- to-four-year-high.html
  22. BP (2019), ‘Fourth Quarter and Fully Year Results 2018’: www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/news-and- insights/press-releases/fourth-quarter-2018-results. html
  23. Exxon Mobil (2019), ‘Exxon Mobil Earns $20.8bn in 2018’: news.exxonmobil.com/press-release/ exxonmobil-earns-208-billion-2018-6-billion-fourth- quarter
  24. ConocoPhillips (2019), ‘ConocoPhillips Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2018 Results’: www.conocophillips.com/news-media/story/ conocophillips-reports-fourth-quarter-and-full-year- 2018-results-announces-preliminary-2018-year-end- reserves/
  25. UK Oil and Gas Authority (2019), ‘Government Revenues from UK oil and gas production’: www. ogauthority.co.uk/media/5389/tax_table_mar_2019. pdf
  26. The Scottish Government (2018), ‘Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland’: p.23